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How to Get a Job at a Technology Company After an MBA

Having been working in technology and startups for a decade and completing an MBA in the process, a frequent question I receive is how can an MBA graduate transfer into the technology industry post-graduation, and many times specifically, into a startup. This question has broken my rule of four: once a question has been asked of me four times, I write a blog post answering it for the masses. This post outlines my advice to those people.

Let’s Say the Hard Thing First: Most Startups Don’t Want You
The thing you have to understand about startups is that they are about belief. A (usually first time) founder with (usually) not much of an understanding of an industry decides s/he can take it on and make it better. If someones has that type of belief in him/herself, that person also believes they can learn all of the skills necessary to execute on their vision, but they don’t have any of those skills when they start. If things happen to go well, the founder/s quickly realize they do have some skills they can’t or don’t have the time to learn that are necessary to scale the business. So, what they look for in people they bring onto their teams is someone with a skill set that can fill a weakness of theirs or their teams. This usually means previous experience in startups as the challenges are so unique.

Most MBAs do not have any startup experience, and founders won’t be impressed if you won your business plan competition during school. They probably never wrote one anyway. If you don’t have a skill they need right now, they feel like they are wasting their time talking to you. In fact, the more likely a startup founder is to talk to you, the less likely it is going to be a successful startup.

Most startups also pay below market values, and MBAs tend to have salary requirements to help them pay down their debt. I remember interviewing MBAs for a position that would report to me. Almost all of them asked for more money in salary than I was making. Essentially, what happens is they don’t want your salary, and they don’t yet need your strategic skills. They need executional skills you probably don’t have.

The Baby Step: Start at an Established Tech Company
Most MBA are deep in debt, and they want to go head on in a new direction. Some times, that may work. But my advice for people wanting to get into startups is to take a baby step. Instead of targeting companies with 15-50 people, target established tech companies. The main reason for this is to build up the set of skills startups needs. Where can you learn those skills? From people that previously worked in startups. Many of those people are still working for what was a startup and is now a successful tech company. The bonus of this situation is that since these companies are bigger, they are more likely to value MBA skills and more likely to have training programs to help you learn the skills startups need. So, if you work at a, say, LinkedIn, for two years, you probably learn a thing or two that scales down to a startup. The other great thing about established tech companies is they are likely to offer internships for MBAs, which are critically important during the summer time off.

What to Do at an Established Tech Company
The next question becomes what to work on at an established tech company. This is a trade off between how much of your skills translate to what they need, and what you want to learn. Let’s say you were in finance before your MBA, and you want to get into marketing. Perhaps an FP&A position that focuses on marketing spend would be an ideal option as it gives you exposure into all the marketing data and probably a lot of the marketers you want to learn from. Perhaps there is a marketing position available that they can train you in at the start. That is ideal. If not, you may be able to transfer later as you learn the lingo.

The Bottom Line
Changing industries is a long term play. You can’t expect to just hop into a new industry with no expertise and get your ideal role at your ideal company. If that role is a role at a startup, play the long game by building skills at a larger company first and working with the right people to make sure that can translate a few years down the line.

Skill Optionality for Career Growth

Most firms operate via division of labor and specialization. So, as a budding employee at most companies, the task is to figure out what to specialize in so you have a place in the organization. This task is valuable in that in ensues a role for you in the organization and allows you to become a subject matter expert over time in a specific field. The world needs subject matter experts, so picking the right specialty early on is an important decision.

Specializing Too Early

The problem with that decision is when most employees are forced to make that decision i.e. in one of their first few jobs or during college when picking a major, they really have no idea what a great specialty will be, either from a matching their personality perspective or being needed in the marketplace perspective. Furthermore, universities are literally the least knowledgeable about what specialties will be valuable in the market because they largely exist outside of the labor market. This is why we’re pumping out hundreds of thousands of journalism majors even though there are very few jobs in journalism above the poverty line.

Making the Bet

Andy Johns has a great post on identifying individual strengths and making bets on skills that will become more valuable over time in the labor market. I would encourage anyone thinking about how to position their career to read it. The challenge is in making the right bets, and how bets can scale long-term for a career. For example, let’s say you make a bet to focus on social media marketing. Is that skill likely to be more or less valuable in four years? Now, the answer to this question has two components: 1) how many more firms will want these skills in the future and 2) how many more people will have these skills in the future. If the answer to 1) is a lot more and the answer to 2) is not much more, that’s a gold mine, but if the answer to both is a lot more, it may not be that great of a bet.

Scaling the Bet

The second component is how that bet scales. To answer this question, you need to know far can that skill can scale upward in an organization or in a career with that specialization. Sticking with the social media example, will there be Directors of Social Media Marketing in the future? VP’s? Chief Social Officers? If that seems likely, that’s another reason to focus on that niche. Unfortunately, no matter what specialty someone looks at, the answer is almost always that there is a cap to how far that specialty goes before one needs to acquire more skills to advance further. Sticking with social media, that track may end at Social Media Manager, and then you need to have PR skills to advance to the next phase at most organizations, or more online marketing skills like SEM, SEO, and email marketing. After that, whichever track you choose, you would need to fill in those other skills to become a VP of Marketing or a CMO.

This scenario becomes a problem for many people, as there are no convenient ways to develop new specialties over time. If you are working on social media all day, chances are low that your manager will proactively make sure you develop PR or SEM skills to prepare you to advance. So, people get stuck with the specialties and levels they are at after a while, and if those specialties become less important, they become less important over time. In a field like marketing, the skills needed at companies change very dramatically, as new marketing channels emerge over time, and as marketing channels mature, they tend to be less effective. Going back to school doesn’t help, as they tend to teach less skill-based functions, and certificates are mostly seen as a joke by employers.

Going T-Shaped

Fortunately, there are some ways to dodge these main issues, which are 1) not being able to predict the future on which skills are best to specialize in because the market moves too fast, and 2) not being able to add new skills over time to successfully manage more disciplines over time. Most advocate a position called being t-shaped ( good example here and example for search marketers here). The t-shaped model is great, but it misses some key features for career development I want to highlight.

1) One big bet vs. a few small bets

Becoming a t-shaped employee still requires placing a big bet on one area of depth and an 80/20 approach to close disciplines around that area of depth. There is still a large risk if that area of depth devolves in importance over time. The T-shape implies a static field and demand of skills that does not represent the labor market.

2) Individual contributor vs. manager

Management (and especially upper management) positions are not t-shaped. They are largely about strategy and goals. Having a ton of depth in a field like social media for a VP of Marketing is not especially useful as that person is expected to have someone that reports to him/her that has more depth. A senior manager needs to be able to spot opportunities to meet goals, and manage a diverse group of people to work together to reach those goals. Currently, many managers have a jarring experience where they begin to manage multiple disciplines and people not related to the depth that got them promoted.

3) Different T shapes work better at different companies

Sticking with the marketing examples, going deep in social media might be great for one company, but not very effective for others. Only knowing a little about other areas will likely make you not a great fit if social doesn’t move the needle. Ideally, you want your skills to work on a broad array of companies (though not too broad, like tech and industrial).

Solving the Problem

So how do you de-risk the choosing of a specialty and position yourself for more senior positions over time? That solution is to embrace skill optionality. What is skill optionality? It is maintaining exposure to different (especially emerging) areas of a field, and focusing, when necessary on specific niches, but not being stuck on one skill forever. Think of that t-shaped framework as a moving model where the component that is the stem of the T is gradually moving around as opportunities emerge in different fields and sharing depth with one or more other fields. So, instead of one long stem on SEO as in the Moz example above, it becomes a pi as SEO shares time with social media.

Skill optionality solves many problems for young or even experienced professionals. Young professionals gain exposure to many different fields, and are more likely to find one they excel at to either specialize in for the long-term or use as an initial depth from which to expand. For those with more experience, it breaks through the career ceiling of being just a subject matter expert, and protects one when certain expertises become less valuable. If you become experienced in four or five things, it is unlikely all five will become less important over time. Typically, as one skill becomes less important, another becomes more important. Skill optionality protects you from movements in the market related to skill needs.

I am not describing being a generalist, but just diversifying your portfolio of skills a little bit. I’ve seen a lot of blog posts that say every marketer in the future should know how to code, and use Photoshop, and know how to execute a laundry list of different marketing tactics. Chances are that’s too much for most people. How do you know if you’re going too general? Well, you should feel like the smartest person in the room on multiple subjects. If you’re a manager, it should that you or someone on your team is, and, if the latter, that you’re the next smartest after your team member. If you can’t claim a few broad areas as your domain, you’ve probably gone too far. In marketing, most companies win because they focus on a few channels, and become the best in the world at them. Skill optionality is not about executing in 30 areas, but knowing and adapting to which few maximally benefit your company/career, and being positioned to strategize as well as execute on those.

How to Execute

The next question you should be asking is how to execute this. I would like to make sure people understand that corporate America is not built for skill optionality; it is built for specialization. So, optimizing for this career path is fighting against the corporate ladder in every way early on in a career, but with maximum upside later on in a career. Some good strategies for young professionals is to shoot for positions that provide exposure to different areas in useful ways, like a web analyst who measures online marketing performance and therefore begins to understand different elements of online marketing. If that is not possible, another good strategy is to develop a specialty at a large company, and then move to a much smaller one where that skill is needed, but there is plenty of opportunity to develop new skills as no one else will be doing other things close to that specialty (or other things in the T one wants to develop). Some larger companies have rotational programs, which sound like a great way to get exposure to multiple areas, though, without having experienced these myself, I can’t say for sure.

The bottom line is that it’s important to pay attention to new opportunities to go broader in your skill set, and fight to get exposure to those opportunities. This will de-risk specialties that go out of favor in the market as well as better position you for management in the future. Even if you never want to manage, having multiple skill sets that you can adjust your depth on ensures you are always a viable candidate for many open positions, and will make you suitable for positions some companies desperately need.

Note: My examples are in marketing because that’s where I can get most concrete, but these examples can easily apply to engineers (via languages and elements of the stack), designers (with web, mobile, print, interactive, copy, coding, ui, ux), or just about any other discipline I can think of.

Why You Are Your Title at Your Current Job, and Why You Want to Be

The Start-up of You
I just finished reading Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha’s The Start-up of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career. It’s a great read about operating your career like a startup. I generally think that Reid Hoffman’s is one of the smartest entrepreneurs out there, and I’m supremely impressed with what LinkedIn has done, and how they’ve done it. I do take issue with one suggestion of the book, which, while good-natured, can have the opposite effect of what it suggests.

Reid suggests that individuals create their own story highlighting their competitive advantage as business professionals, which I agree with. One way he suggests to do that though is to basically create your own title. So, instead of making your LinkedIn headline “Online & Interactive Marketing Director at GrubHub”, he suggests it read more like “Experienced Marketing Manager in Online Marketing and Product Strategy”. I disagree with this suggestion entirely. My reasons coalesce nicely with my Personal Branding’s Not About You post, so I’ll reiterate a couple of those points.

Tyler Durden

First, I’ll tackle the entrepreneur case. If you are currently running your own business, it should be your goal to get that brand in front of as many people as possible. That means your optimal title would not be “Entrepreneur & Blogger” but “Founder, MyAwesomeStartup.com”, just so people see that URL. Second, if you’re not an entrepreneur, one of the key competitive advantages an employee or potential employee can have is showing other potential employers that they can be dedicated to the company they work for. So, if I know someone works for a certain startup, and has a title on LinkedIn that doesn’t mention it but only mentions things about them specifically, I know their heart’s not in that startup. That makes me question whether their heart can be in any company, or are they just all about themselves.

Part of what you are selling if you are looking for a job is that you can become part of a whole, and the best way to demonstrate that is by showing you’ve done that before. Optimizing your LinkedIn to be less company specific shows the opposite, and raises some flags. Employers want to know that you can work well with a team and develop a passion for their brand and not just your own personal brand or your side projects. These days, with personal branding being all the rage, many people can’t do that, which makes it precisely one of the competitive advantages Reid suggests you harvest in your career.

Don’t Be Unique: A Lesson in Applying for Jobs and Schools

When I was a high school student applying to universities, I had this assumption that application evaluators read thousands upon thousands of applications each year. To stand out, you really needed to show something unique in your application. So in all of my essays, if there was any sort of “other” option, I went for it, and crafted very unique essays. I didn’t get into any of the schools I wanted.

When I was applying for graduate schools right after college when I didn’t have any jobs lined up, I made the same mistake. I went for the unique essays, and again didn’t get in anywhere. Since I was a graduating senior, I was offered application feedback from one of these schools. The evaluator told me point blank, the evaluators extremely disliked your essays.

I didn’t quite understand why until I started evaluating resumes for a position at GrubHub.com. I had clear requirements of what I was looking for, and overall knew what I wanted. What I realized when I started evaluating these resumes was that I only wanted to see what I expected to see: experience in the skills necessary, a cover letter that actually mentioned things related to the job. Really simple requirements that almost no applications met. I probably received more applications that said they enjoyed windsurfing than those that said they were proficient in Excel. That’s when I finally understood where I went wrong in the past.

Evaluators of resumes for jobs or applications for schools don’t want uniqueness in their applications. So few people follow the directions of meet the requirements of what they want that a perfect application is just one that meets the basic requirements requested. Applications that are flashy or out of the box just make it harder to evaluate whether the candidate is right for the position or school. So, a lesson for those applying to jobs or schools: just do what the application asks, and do it right. Don’t try to be unique.